Notre plus doux secret (Horizon) (French Edition)

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Frank Bormann Sunday, 20 March I have some customers on the Faroe Island. David Thursday, 10 March Poperinge. I used already 5 templates of Joomspirit. I must say they are the best templates, easy in use and multifunctional. Nice work! Always fast in answering and helping! Highly recommendable! Je recommande.

I was looking for a suitable Joomla Template to start from scratch Not yet finished, but want to make my point: Your theme is stunning, beautiful and easy to use! Great compliments to the maker; even the slideshow fits in seaming less. All you need for free Thank you very much for a inspiring experience, you really make a difference to the CMS world theme suppliers out there! Sonja Friday, 19 February Germany.

Beautiful templates. Fast and friendly Customer Service. Brq Wednesday, 10 February Croatia. Very nice AND functional template with very good support! Roland Friday, 05 February Schweiz. Henk van der Werf Thursday, 04 February Haarlemmermeer. I have free and paid templates from JoomSpirit. Supporting Nicolas is great. The templates are full off opportunities to make a good website.

Thanks Nicolas. Great templates, Pleasure to work with, Great service!! Highly recommended!! Frank Bormann Sunday, 17 January Denmark. Eduardo Saturday, 16 January Brazil. During months I was searching for a template to use in our Joomla 1. It works and I am gratefull to Joomspirit team and I will send a Donation to Them to all effort to offer the best of Them. Anouk Thursday, 14 January The Netherlands.

JoomSpirit templates are great. I've used several free templates and also bought a few. The support is excellent. When I have a problem Nicolas always has a solution within the day. Keep up the good work! Dian Friday, 08 January Nederland. Ik heb al veel verschillende site gebouwd, maar deze is zeer veelzijdig, gemakkelijk aan te passen, gewoon topklasse. Ich bin sehr damit zufrieden. Dobrovolsky Wednesday, 06 January France - Roanne. Bob Thursday, 31 December UK. After designing websites myself for so long and getting tired of doing so using JoomSpirit which has such customizability is a great step.

Antonella Tromba Wednesday, 09 December All of them for free. After trying a series of layouts that all looked the same, I can proudly assure this is the best template installed on my blog so far. Thanks, JoomSpirit! Katharina Stohr Thursday, 03 December Ich bin sehr begeistert und kann JoomSpirit nur weiter empfehlen! Claude Wednesday, 02 December France. One more website using joomspirit template with fullscrenn This template allows a non standard and pretty look well adapted to this pool builder company. Falk Monday, 23 November Germany.

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Tolle Designs und super einfach anzupassen. Sollten doch mal Probleme auftreten, hilft der Support schnell und kompetent weiter. Ich werde meine Templates nur noch hier kaufen. Dominik Friday, 20 November Germany. Thank you, for your very good templates and your fast and friendly support! I'll be back soon :. Poulard Thursday, 12 November France. Merci pour tout.

Claudio Monday, 09 November Germany. Beautiful templates and very fast support. I'll be back Thank you very much. You won't find better, period. Joomspirit templates shine on both. Thank you very much for all the great templates. Thank you so much, Nicolas, for your great support and help when dealing with a problem of an unwanted movement of pictures in a gallery. They are fantastic! Good work! I recommend them to everybody!

Roland Tuesday, 27 October Germany. I bought a template for 22 Euro - and got qualified help and support with a value of much more! Clean and professional Joomla templates. Adding a professional service makes JoomSpirit my first choice when looking for Joomla templates. Phil Tuesday, 13 October Berlin. Thanks a lot! Kjeld Monday, 12 October Danmark. Very fine and quick support from Nicolas - Thank you very much. Great email support - thank you very much to Nicolas Lemarinier. Gourie K. Thursday, 08 October Germany. Awesome design, easy use, good manual and the most important a very helpful Designer.

I already purchased 4 templates and I am sure, there will be much more. Thank you Nicolas for this great work. We use the templates from a joomspirit very oift and are totally satisfied :. Scot Thursday, 17 September Breugel. Love the website-- extremely individual friendly and lots to see! Franco Thursday, 17 September Firenze. Thank you for your fast and great support which solved a problem of compatibility of JS FlexSlider with my template. I have purchased several of JoomSpirit's templates and have found them to be extremely easily to customize!

The manual provides detailed directions and twice, when I found myself having problems and I used their Contact form online I received a quick response with perfect solutions to my questions! This is my favorite template company!!! Downloaded flexslider. It is simple, easy to install and works perfectly. Andrea Monday, 31 August Portugal. I chose a joomspirit template because Nicolas is the only developer I found who gives extensive information about the templates and offers a free one with the same "infrastructure" so that I could take my time testing things out before buying a template.

I consider this a real bonus. The template I bought needed a couple of minor adjustments and the support I got from Nicolas was excellent. The joomspirit template is very good value for money. Highly recommended. David Careje Wednesday, 26 August Poperinge. Love your work. Allways beautifull, but yet simple to manage templates. Great developer. Christophe Wednesday, 05 August France. Peter Tuesday, 28 July Belgium. Sabine Tuesday, 21 July The support ist just awesome! Nicolas has a solution for everything!

I can warmly recommend buying one of these great templates :D. Chemek Lewandowski Sunday, 19 July Sweden. I just love your templates, and you offer a great customer service, thanks for everything. Theo Vermeulen Friday, 03 July Netherlands. Nice work and nice working template's. I have already more than 15 template use for my customers. Great job Joomspirit. Beautiful templates, easy to install, easy to customize and the service is great. The documentation is complete and easy to understand.

Thank you for the excellent work. Before I have tried Joomspirit templates I've been through several others and there was always something. Most often to modify them really extensive knowledge and skills was needed and even if you ask for help and the support was promised, it was very hard to get the result I was expecting.

My experience with Joomspirit was way different. First of all the template itself is very simple and easy to manage. All modifications I needed was clearly accessible from the admin panel so I didn't need to do too much with the actual code. Also the manual is written exactly as simple as I needed.

All of that plus easy to access and very helpful support from Nicolas makes my experience with Joomspirit even more delightful. IMO they are the best joomla templates in the market. Simple, clean and easy to modify and manage even if you're not a specialist. I am very happy, I found your site!

Your very beautiful and special templates have a fair price and it's easy to use them. Thank you a lot! Joe Thursday, 04 June Ireland. Lovely template which was very easy to modify to my needs. Had one small issue, which was resolved with one support email response time was less than an hour. Overall, I'm completely happy with JoomSpirit.

Thank you for your help. The template and the instructions are very detailed. This is very good. And I hope I understand the english instructions also good. Alain Sunday, 24 May Un superbe travail. Crochemore Wednesday, 20 May I recently renovated the web site of the Riad using the Full Screen 10 template the former version of the site was built with Full Screen 5.

Just amazing, especially the responsive design! Good job. Alvis Thursday, 07 May Very happy with Joomspirit and Nicholas. Very fast response and support. Templates are very nice design and modern. In particular I like how the responsive menu on mobile phones work for JoomSpirit templates. Marco Friday, 01 May Thanks for the great templates and your support!

I appreciate it! Anni Thursday, 30 April Guernsey. Thank you for your lovely templates and superb service. I would definitely recommend JoomSpirit. Meik Tuesday, 28 April Germany.

I purchased a template which looks really great. It was easy to install and Nicolas gave me great, friendly and immediate support to adapt it for my needs. Really good service. Desiree Bruce Monday, 27 April My all time favourite templates. I've bought Joomspirit templates for several years and love how user friendly they are to use.

Just bought Template 97 - looks great and is very flexible with modules and text. Thanks JoomSpirit for you continuing excellent templates. David Friday, 03 April Today I launched a new corporate website, build with the latest template build by Nicolas, Template And again a beautifull design with more then enough features to make a nice website. Great job, professional rendering, high compatibility of templates, fully satisfied! Eugenio Monday, 23 March Italy.

The templates are beautiful and well made, the support is fast, accurate and decisive. MC3 Wednesday, 11 March monaco. Kyra P Tuesday, 10 March I bought the Full Screen 9 Template. It is absolutely beautiful. It is very customizable, and even for someone like myself with zero knowledge on how to build a website, they learning curve isn't terrible, and the site is coming about nicely. I will certainly be looking here for templates for other websites.

I bought Fullscreen 9. It is easy to handle thanks for the good manual , has many Parameters and it really looks great on the Website. Thank's a lot! Best Regards. Easy and fine to handle after reading the Manual ;-. Golgoth57 Wednesday, 04 March France Paris.

One of the best templates I used for Joomla. So I have acquired one of the commercial ones, as the prices are very attractive. Fantastic and fast support! Keep on the good work! Lutz Friday, 27 February Deutschland.

Andrée Chedid and the contradictions of translation | Jacket2

Als ich bei Joomspirit. Vielen Dank! Ronald Sunday, 22 February Germany. For many years now I use templates of Joomspirit. They look very good and they work all te time. And if not, you get the best support in short time. Any piece of software is as good as the support you get with it. That's why I get back every time I build a new website. Nicolas, great job. Your templates are very simple and professional. Maria Saturday, 14 February Germany. Hi, thanks for your great joomla template joomspirit 99!

Ive saved a lot of work and time. Mike Tuesday, 10 February Canada. I am a joomla newbie and joomspirit made me look like a pro! The slideshow was easy and the manual was extremely helpful. Chatawat Lekkla Friday, 06 February This is the first time I purchased a template online.

Before this I tried free JoomSpirit template. It satisfied me very much then I bought the commercial template. It's working real good!! Even if I need some modification which wasn't in the manual. I can e-mail the support and get the answer everytime. Next template I will buy. Of course it will be JoomSpirit!! I recommend you too!!

Very nice and easy to apply templates and to fast and competent support. Frank Wednesday, 28 January I use joomspirit templates since or Best templates and best support! Great Work ever! Thank you for your response and your work, I would like to say that your templates are awesome. Definitely we will buy more and more. Nice Templates and first of all : very clear manuals and super quick support. Wow, what a man! Great, very clean and pretty Templates.

Easy to customize. Very fast Support for a small mistake on my part. Great work, thank's!!! Carme Pujol Wednesday, 14 January Nice templates and easy to admin. Fast and efficient support. Klaus Tuesday, 06 January Munich, Germany. Merci pour vos template et pour l'aide Claude. Le rendu est exceptionnel. Le diaporama sur la page d'acceuil, un plaisir. Je ne suis sur du joomla 3 que depuis 5 jours, mais avec ce template, ce n'est que du bonheur Best templates ever.

Simple and elegant as I like them. The costumer service is paramount. Peter Winter Tuesday, 30 December Quality, efficient, clean, fluid width templates are surprisingly hard to find in Joomla. But that is what these templates are. Very happy. Yuri Monday, 29 December Belgium. I was searching a lightweight and responsive template which avoid to install additional modules.

Minimalist template do the job:easy to configure and use, with enough possibilities of customization to make nice sites. Martin Schenderling Wednesday, 17 December H Top Thursday, 11 December Fast response on a minor problem I had. Keep up the great work! Merry Cox Monday, 08 December Spain. Excellent templates! Great quality and easy to manage.

Very detailed support manual. Muriel Pineau Thursday, 04 December France. Bonne continuation, donc. Stefan Berendes Wednesday, 03 December Germany. I use Joomspirit templates with Joomla 3. I like the style and the good documentation. The email support is very fast and capable. Really good work Stefan. Lothar Graf Monday, 01 December Germany.

Excellent templates and documentation. Fast as lightning and very helpful support. Many thanks! Denis Friday, 28 November Great templates and very good support by the author. Alexis Tuesday, 25 November Cannot do something more than to higly recommend this guy for his templates. Keep up!! Federico Saturday, 22 November Italy. I'am happy that you decide to work with Wordpress Great website, nice templates and good service.

Well done, i use right now template 97 on my website www. Christian Fischbacher Wednesday, 19 November Schweiz. Super Templates und noch besser Support, kann diese Seite nur weiterempfehlen. Willemijn Friday, 07 November Italy. I have used several of Joomspirit templates and they always work very well. Nicolas gives instant, friendly and fast help when there is an issue. I can really recommend the templates!! I work with Fullscreen 5 and I love it. Easy to implement, perfectly documented and when I had a problem once, I was helped in no time - with a fix that worked instantly!

I needed a new template to upgrade from Joomla 2. Outstanding template, but more than that ourstanding service. Nicolas responded quickly to all of my questions and problems, everything from help selecting a template that would look like my 2. I can't recommend more highly. Jochen Vollstedt Wednesday, 22 October Germany.

Das Template ist auf jeden Fall sein Geld wert! Clement Yann Monday, 20 October France. Xavi Ibiza Thursday, 16 October Ibiza. JoomSpirit includes a full load of features into its templates; they may seem standard nowadays but integrating them manually into Joomla has its pitfalls and certainly takes a lot of time. JoomSpirit is about the only Joomla template supporting a vertical logo and it has all the bells and whistles like dropdown menus included.

The price is very fair, especially when considering the immediate e-mail support I got for adapting the CSS to my needs. Fully recommended! And a very elegant solution too.

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Another plus: CSS-code is very neatly arranged so that one finds pretty quickly what one is looking for. And the templates work perfectly responsive. All in all: Very recommendable! Ce site est vraiment au top! Silke Monday, 06 October Austria. I was searching for a template that would satisfy my ideas for the website I was wanting to make. I saw many templates and tried all the demos. At last I got to Joomspirit and saw their "my" template - joomspirit 99!!!! I found what I needed. It had exactly what I wanted. Working on the template was very simple, although the descriptions in the manual are perfekt!

So I learnd really fast - and I am happy with my homepage! Another remarkable thing I would like to mention, is the support I got from Nicolas, I mailed him and the reply was fast and professional. Thanks al lot - great work!!!!! Nick Sunday, 05 October Denmark.

I really spent a lot of time looking for a suitable Joomla template before coming across your site and I found just the layout and visual appeal that I was aiming at. I love your templates. They are professional and have an outstanding layout - yet easy to configure and work with. The manual and sample page for the template is excellent and saved me a lot of time while developing my new site. I can very much recommend your work — JoomSpirit is outstanding. Keep up the good work. Thank's a lot for your really good working Templates and very fast Support.

Sunny Greetings! Furrer Andy Friday, 26 September Peru. Thanks a lot for your great work! Everything works and looks just great and your Email support is also very fast and efficient Keep up the great work!!! Margene Tuesday, 23 September Froidfontaine. Wow cuz this is extremely helpful work! Congrats and keep it up. Robert Monday, 08 September UK.

I am using JoomSpirit 76 and find it excellent and flexible. I was looking for some time before I found JoomSpirit and love the fact it is a 'Responsive' template. And is also free! I have made a donation and Nicolas immediately sent me the update to remove the JoomSpirit at the bottom.

Thanks Nicolas and I will probably give JoomSpirit recognition somewhere on the site. People who do good work like this deserve support. Nataly Florez Saturday, 06 September France. Templates are beautiful and easy to use. The support team is just really reactive and helpful! Thanks Joomspirit team for your good work. Gomes Friday, 05 September Germany. I searched many months, saw many templates, cheap and expensive ones and tried all the demos.

At last I got to Joomspirit and saw their templates and found the one I needed, it was the Full Screen 8. It had exactly what I wanted, a fair price and very closely integrated into Joomla. Working on the template was very simple, although some of the descriptions in the manual are featured in the Joomla 2. In this manner I learnt to work with the template and at last know exactly what to do.

The astonishing part for me was however, how easy it was to integrate Kunena Forum, BreezingForms etc. Love the templates of Joomspirit. They work great, perfect for seo and the support from Nicolas is incredible. Keep up the good work mate! Anna Sunday, 31 August Roma. Sia gratuite che a pagamento. Ringrazio Nicolas Lemarinier per tutto questo. David Wednesday, 27 August France. Prompt to reply for question et easy too use templates Continuez en ce sens. Please continue in this way. Annalisa Tuesday, 26 August Great templates at great prices or free!

Well done Nicolas. Cetl Saturday, 23 August Hamburg, Germany. I will test the template and then buy if it is ok. I need it for a customer. It is the 4th from JoomSpirit. Greetings from hamburg germany. Knud Hansen Friday, 15 August Denmark. Tuesday, August 12 I launched my new website to the public by mails, and it was a liberating day. This was preceded by a long time to learn, depending on the method: learning by doing. It was 36 pages with about photos in different slide shows.

I still struggle with several little things I have not quite mastered, but there have already been many words of praise from those who have received the newsletter, but only when I am completely in goal, comes the English version. It's been a learning process to create the page, and it's first time in my life I try it, I'm 66 years old. Thanks you Nicolas about your really great work. I was looking for a long time for something good and well organized, but also simple and easy to use.

I found in your template, exactly what i was looking for! Gernot Monday, 11 August Germany. The Joomspririt76 Template is very flexible. I managed quite easy to modify it for my needs. Thank you for the quick and friendly support. Paulo Marques Sunday, 27 July Brazil. The template 96 is easy to install and operate, it takes advantage of all the features of Joomla, support is fast, efficient and professional, I recommend the work of the staff of JoomSpirit. I find the templates excellent and have some already used successfully.

Thank you for your good work. Peter Tuesday, 22 July The Netherlands. I like the JoomSpirit templates very much. Easy to adjust. I learned some new things too. So, i have lot of respect for guys like you. Quality products, fast support for a very reasonable price. I recommend JoomSpirit. Matti Kajula Friday, 18 July Finland. Nicole Sunday, 13 July Switzerland. Hi Nicolas I am very pleased with your template JoomSpirit The fixed header is great!

But best of all is that your CSS-files are so well documented, so that one finds the way most of the times ;- pretty easily where to make changes in the code. I also appreciated a lot your quick answer, when I was having some troubles. Your templates are more than recommendable. Jonas Thursday, 03 July Suisse. Toujours un plaisir d'utiliser les templates Joomspirit. GB Wednesday, 02 July Very good support!

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I use more than 10 templates at the moment all beautiful and easy to configure. Jim Br. Everything workes fine again now - on www. Anna Possberg Tuesday, 01 July Germany. The design I have found on your site inexactly what I was looking for : classy and elegant. It is the perfect background for my images and it works well- consistent, stable and responsive. Thanks Nicolas also for your friendly and very quick support. Martin Sunday, 29 June Martigny Suisse.

J'aime beaucoup le style de templates de Joomspirit. Gunter Pfeiffer Tuesday, 24 June Germany. Second homepage with JoomSpirit layout. Super and very fast support for some small problems. Theo Friday, 20 June The Netherlands. Great template and excellent support. Impressive stuff. Nicolas, keep up the good work! Rod Saturday, 14 June Australia. Am a beginner and have a couple of templates from Nicolas. The first went live on Friday the 13th. Am very pleased with the template and happy with the support although we would do better if I spoke French. He assisted me with some of the learning basics and promptly modified a template for me to accept a particular extension.

All good and will use his templates again. Helder Friday, 13 June Portugal. Easy and simple templates to work: D really like the templates joomspirit. Keep up the excellent work : Templates simples e faceis de trabalhar :D gosto muito dos templates do joomspirit. Continua com o excelente trabalho :. Anni Wednesday, 28 May Guernsey. I am using two different JoomSpirit templates and find them to be easy and straight forward to deal with. The support I have received from Nicolas is excellent.

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I can only recommend JoomSpirit. Piero Saturday, 24 May Italy. Complimenti per il lavoro svolto, ma soprattutto per l'assistenza immediata, precisa e veloce. I'm a novice, building my own site. My biggest problem has been finding the look I want - an elegant art gallery feeling, with ease of use, no additional fonts required, a manual that tells me what I need to know including, for example, a link to the perfect image slider without a forum of experts to clear up confusion.

The new JoomSpirit 96 template available last month has answered all my prayers. This designer is an artist. Thank you Nicolas! Alexander Wednesday, 21 May Russia, Moscow. Good job, excellent templates and great quick support! Keep up, Nicolas! David Thursday, 15 May Netherlands. Today I launched my second company site. Again with the same professional appearance as my first one. Keep up the good work, Nicolas! Thomas Tuesday, 13 May Austria.

Very good unique templates.. We want more of your stylish templates. Rona Monday, 12 May Germany. Thanks for your beautiful templates - clear design, yet very attractive. Working with your templates is very comfortable as everything is well documented! Manish Saturday, 10 May India. Full screen templates are unique with lots of feature. This is extraordinary work done by JoomSpirit. Thanks to developers for developing this unique templates for Joomla. Wim Saturday, 10 May Netherlands. I like Joomspirit's responsive fullscreen templates because they are easy to work with and run splendid on all devices.

When you need support Nicolas will be there. Marta van Eck Saturday, 10 May Germany. I love the template I bought here. Very easy to install, nice design and the price is ok too. Great work.

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I could even set it up by myself using simple and user friendly manual. Giandomenico Thursday, 08 May Italy. Sono un prefessionista che si occupa di hotel web marketing. Realizzo i siti in Joomla ed ho trovato in JoomSpirit un validissimo partner. Veloce e precisa. Un sentito Grazie. Chum Editions Tuesday, 06 May Patrick Thursday, 24 April Switzerland. I purchased a template. It's very well written and looks great. When I had an problem with the navigation, I got help very fast from the developer. Thank you Nicolas very much for the great work!

We will continue to rely on future versions of this template. Andreas Stopp Tuesday, 22 April Switzerland. We use them a lot. They look very nice, are easy to handle and fast support. Thank you for your work! Andreas adaptory. Jordi Wednesday, 16 April beta. Me gustaba mucho Gavick pero sin duda me he cambiado a Joomspirit con dos plantillas compradas.

Aparte siempre me ha contestado a cualquier duda, y eso que muchas eran dudas tontas. Gracias Nicolas!!! MirDo Monday, 14 April Slovakia. Knapen Monday, 14 April NL. I asked a question about a template and got quick response within 12 hours. Good job, Nicolas. Pietro Saturday, 12 April Professionality is the right word. The templates are made very well, the service and support is top of the class! High quality, cheap price and excellent support. Who could ask for more? Assisance rapide et clair. These templates are a god send.

There are functionalities here I have been trying to find for a very long time. Then just when you think it could not get better the customer support surpasses even the quality of the templates. I had two problems and I emailed twice for help. On both occasions the responses were prompt, succinct and easy to understand.

Both problems were solved quickly. Gianmarco Sunday, 06 April Hi, Nicolas was fast and very professional replying to my query. I'm very happy with Joomspirit service:- thanks again. Peter Zeller Sunday, 06 April Germany. I have been looking for the template like this nearly a month, finally I've found it from Joomspirit. I show my boss the link to the template, he replied: "I f To the imaginative expanse of these enormous spaces, to the audaciousness of their poetic rationality must be added the fantastic speed of their realization, able to change in a short time a whole aspect of the city.

The nocturnal vision is the beginning of a series of visions which continue with the changing light of the first morning to the moment of full sunshine. While Florent is remembering the moment of his arrest, the traffic grows more intense, the first pavillons, those with the vegetables, open their doors. He takes Florent away in order to show him the Halls of the Great Market. While the day dawns, they enter the illuminated Halls which Florent once again beholds, struck by this city within the city which resembles a forest and a world:.

Zola vol. Here again, the pure presence transcends itself towards the imaginary or the beautiful, an experience that the eye of no scientific experimenter could have:. Maintenant il entendait le long roulement qui partait des Halles. This is the moment of turmoil and of intensity of colours at their apex:. Ceci tuera cela, le fer tuera la pierre, et les temps sont proches For Claude, the change of paradigm between stone construction and construction in cast iron takes on another significance.

It is the change of a world centered upon religion to a modern world where life itself is a supreme value:. Could they, however, be identified with the reflections of Zola himself? It seems to be evident that Zola wants to replace the imaginary center of the city, which Hugo had created with Notre-Dame de Paris, by its real center which would be the modern construction in cast iron of the Market Halls, a symbol of the material life and its needs. It seems, however, that by the opposition of perspectives of Claude and Florent, Zola gives a profound ambiguity to this center of modern life.

Whereas the Halls as environment are a center of "fat" gras positive and affirmative life, of the life of the stomach, but also of an absolute absence of political consciousness other than that of an affirmation without reserve, Claude, the painter, is the one that transforms this positivity into aesthetic affirmation. The world of nurture, of meat, of vegetables is a world of jubilant presence, even if no painter before him has ever dared to give to this presence of pathetic life all the sublimity which is due to it.

But it is exactly this world of presence in itself, this jubilation of the stomach, which causes nausea to Florent, a man of consciousness having his place on the side of the meager ones maigres.


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Before Sartre, it is Zola for whom the en-soi is the origin of a nausea of a political kind and, could one say, of a metaphysical kind. Florent is a new Jean Valjean who, however, is not capable of contributing to the progress of the world, nor of reconciling himself with it. Florent remains the man of negation, the man whose project is one of pure change.

From the window of his attic he sees the horizon of the city as a living whole different from the false totalization of the stomach. This is the reason why he joins a group of pseudo-revolutionaries, of revolutionary lunatics like himself. He will be betrayed, arrested and condemned to a new deportation to Cayenne. If the position of Zola in this novel seems to be ambiguous, it is also necessary to take into consideration the myth of Marjolin and Cadine, a myth of a perverse and cruel paradise, of a degraded nature without consciousness. But it seems that neither the perverse world of Marjolin and Cadine nor the end of Florent are the last word of this novel of Paris in the Second Empire.

Because if with the disappearence of Florent everything seems to have come back to order again, if the world in itself seems to be freed from any irritation, it is this very world whose days are counted. The real end of the novel is the end of the Second Empire. In the evening in his attic, leaning against the window, he contemplates for several minutes the horizon of the city. In an article on description which appeared in the journal Le Voltaire on 8 June and was taken up again in the same year in his The Experimental Novel, Zola explains his intentions about A Love Episode and in particular about his great descriptions of Paris ending its five parts like a kind of panoramic symphony:.

Zola , The great landscapes of the sky and of the city here are only emanations of life itself and of its impenetrable mystery. The spectacle of life will make her dream of passion and of the great breath of life which she has not experienced:. Paris, avec le chaos inextricable de ses pierres, luisait comme un cristal. In A Page of Love the totality of the city is present only in the mode of the unreadable. When Jeanne, her daughter, asks her, she has to confess her ignorance. The city remains a stranger to her, and it is exactly the spectacle of this unreadable strangeness which fascinates her:.

Life transforms itself into a vision, but the real presence is that of breath. Right at the beginning, the narrator says of Helen living her calm and retired life that "she had a light breath", whereas her daughter suffers from "trouble in breathing". The city in its perpetual changes, in its energy, will bring to her its breath of life and make her feel her calmness as an absence of life.

The life of the city becomes breath, and this breath seems to inspire the dynamism of discourse with its transposition of the principal accent from the end of the phrase to its verbal forms, and that is to the middle of phrase, which is unusual in French. This fascinating and strange breath of life gets its incarnation with the person of Doctor Henri Deberle who will become for Helen the object of a violent passion.

The descriptions of the panorama of Paris following the moments of the day and of the seasons of the year will follow the line of intensity of this passion, from the moment of its awakening up to the moment when with the death of Jeanne it will find its end. Deberle is for Helen the life of Paris, the fascination of the unknown. He will become her lover, but he will remain a stranger to her, unknown like the city:.

II, ; This page torn out of the book of life is also a page torn out of the book of the city. The life of the city will continue, the life of Helen will continue far from Paris. And yet, what this torn-out page contains is the privileged moment of a perception of the city by a consciousness which opening itself to the city, discovers itself.

This history of the ascendence and the fall of Nana, empress in the empire of senses, is at the same time the allegorical history of the Second Empire and its fall. What will he do? And then? Supposing this definition to be pertinent, it might appear that Zola was no naturalist at all. It seems rather that he uses this programmatic naturalism as a screen behind which he follows a quite different program. Thus the world of theatre in Nana becomes that of the demi-monde which itself will become the incarnation of the social world under the sign of the Second Empire.

The demi-monde with its heroine Nana is a world of ambiguity between theatre and prostitution, a world of appearance and promiscuity. It is here that the physiognomy of an epoch is made manifest. Far from being the novel of a closed world, that of the theatre, Nana is the novel of an epoch. The demi-monde, as it appears in its loud colours under the brush of Zola, is a promise of happiness in the realm of the imaginary, that of the reconciliation of social classes which the revolution of had expected. Zola sees a long decay of the old social order, whereas, freed from the moral constraints which weaken it, it is sexuality, promiscuity, prostitution playing the grimacing comedy of a world between the closed worlds of society.

In this world of appearances of pleasure and illusionary alliances, Nana, a goldfly and girl of the people, pursues her work of destruction, of moral dissolution, before she becomes the victim of physical destruction by illness. Twice the novel insists upon the ideological role of Nana. In an article of the Figaro, the journalist Fauchery gives an allegorical portrait of the goldfly, which is nobody else than Nana:. Ruined, broken, he will return to the religion of his fathers, a vicious man who has neither been able to free himself from the chains of his degrading passion nor from the chains of his class and his religion.

It is through the eyes of Muffat that we are introduced to the world of which Nana is about to become the uncontested and fatal queen. And it is through his eyes too that we perceive one of the great tableaux de Paris of this novel, that of the Passage des Panoramas, a symbolic place of the demi-monde and its promiscuity. Muffat has come too early, full of suspicion, for Nana does not act in the new play, and yet she has gone to the theatre, as Muffat has been told by the concierge:.

Through this distracted gaze of an impatient man afraid of being seen and having to pass his time in waiting, we have the experience of a whole phenomenology of kitsch. We see "a display of papers, of glass bowls with landscapes and flowers in them". It is a gaze without consciousness which presents to us the ordinary objects of a world, which the count despises as much as he is fascinated by its very vulgarity:. II, sq. Twice the Passage des Panoramas reappears in different lights. When finally the Count has found Nana, who wanted to avoid him, because that night she already had another arrangement, it is once again in the Passage des Panoramas that she stops Muffat in order to look at the display of a jeweller.

The world of the passage is the world of Nana:. Elle adorait le passage des Panoramas. Left alone by Nana, after a despairing march through the nocturnal streets of Paris, de Muffat arrives once again at the deserted and dark passage closed now by bars from which emanates the humidity of a cellar:. It is not the look of the chronicler, however, it is an imaginary look with its complex conditions which gives a physionomy to this place.

And it is here exactly that begins the myth of the passage which Aragon has detailed in his Anicet ou le panorama and especially in his Paysan de Paris, which will become in Walter Benjamin the origin of his great myth of the passage as the center of a myth of Paris. But only in Zola does the passage, being part of a Parisian myth of the demi-monde and of the Second Empire, take on its very sociological signification. The passage is the non-place par excellence of that non-place or place of an imaginary real which is the demi-monde.

The myth of Nana, the idol of a society that consumes itself in he furies of pleasure, will be at its point of culmination at the moment when Muffat is definitely ruined by Nana, who exposes him to the utmost humiliation. It is a scene where description, once again, takes on the energy of an imaginary vision:.

Dans son luxe royal, la nouvelle chambre resplendissait. This myth is at the same time a myth of Paris under the Second Empire. Because here luxury and fashion, far from serving the appetite of a demi-monde, are the objects of desire of the honest world of the bourgeoisie and the lower bourgeoisie. It is for them that the great department store is intended, a department store of a new kind, which serves the desires of a new kind of woman customer whom it allows at reasonable prices to participate in a world of luxury inaccessible before.

Nana, heroine of the demi-monde, is opposed to Denise, a young sales woman of fashionable items, niece of the old style cloth merchant Baudu, at whose home she arrives with her two young brothers. Denise becomes a sales woman in the department store "Au Bonheur des Dames", the devastating rival of Baudu, and in spite of some inevitable peripeties, she ascends from degree to degree in the almost military hierarchy of the establishment up to the supreme moment when she marries Mouret, the owner and director of the great firm.

Soap opera seems to be an invention of Zola. When Denise enters the department store, her first impression is that of a machine:. III, sq.


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